時間星期二 18:30 - 20:15
地點鄭裕彤樓5號演講廳 (CYT LT5)
課程講師 Ian MORLEY (39437116 / email@example.com)
助教 Ma. Donna Solis REBONG (firstname.lastname@example.org)
This module provides an introductory survey of the history of urban development from the ancient period to the end of the twentieth century. It focuses on the forces that have led to the development of cities in the past, and achieves this through the lens of a multi-disciplinary perspective and the utilisation of various methodologies. Such a standpoint is adopted in order to allow for the exploration of the impacts of matters like politics, economics, culture and identity, art and architecture, intellectual thought, law, transportation, and military technology upon urban society at different times in history, and to recognise how they influenced the design and shape of the built environment, and so city living. Central to the programme is the use of comparative analyses which assist in identifying and contrasting patterns of urban change. As such differences in urban design that became evident in the past will be made clear. Furthermore, such an approach helps illuminate and clarify the imprint upon urban space and the urban mind of agents affecting the urban development process, including visions and concepts (built and unbuilt) that have swayed social development. Importantly too in utilising this analytical perspective the students are granted opportunities to test hypotheses under the guidance of their teacher about the causes and effects of urban transition, in so doing helping explicitly comprehend the narrative of historical urban development in both factual and conceptual terms.
The course is designed with particular outcome-based learning objectives in mind:
By achieving these objectives students shall collect grades that contribute towards their end of term score. For further details of the how the course grade is given please refer to the section ‘Grading’.
Teaching takes place within two complementary learning situations, these being:
Week 1. Introduction Class: The First Cities (Tuesday, September 5th 2023)
In this opening session a synopsis of the course and the subject of Urban History shall be put forward.
The lecture will also discuss what the first cities were like. It will analyse how the first urban societies differed from rural societies. It will also introduce the physical expressions that new forms of urban-based social organisation took.
Week 2. Greeks and Romans (Tuesday, September 12th 2023)
What were Greek and Roman cities like? Did they share similar features? Did they contrast with each other in any ways? How did Greek and Roman cities express the concept of power – power of the people, religion, authority?
Week 3. The Medieval Era, Cathedrals and Urban Places (September 19th 2023)
What were the main characteristics of Europe’s Medieval City? What architecture dominated towns and cities in Europe at that time? Why? Were all European Medieval Cities alike? What was housing like at that time? What were the main factors in controlling its form?
Week 4. The Renaissance and Baroque City: Humanism to Autocracy (Tuesday, September 26th 2023)
How did the Renaissance conceptualise the ideal city? What were the areas of Renaissance urban planning, its design components and aesthetic considerations? What cultural factors affected the Renaissance concept of planning? How did military developments affect urban design? What were the principles on which the 16th century Popes, such as Pope Sixtus V, re-planned Rome, or aristocratic leaders redesigned their palaces? In what ways were their approaches innovative? Why do you think their ideas were copied and continued elsewhere in Europe during the next 300 years?
Week 5. The London Terraced House and Square (Tuesday, October 3rd 2023)
What were the main characteristics of the London terraced house? How were residential areas laid out from 1660 until the 19th century? How did this form an Italianisation of London? Why do you think the form of terraced housing changed so little in over 200 years? What led to its abandonment? Were other British cities developed in the same way as London? Did the ideas practised in London also have an effect in the British Empire?
Week 6. Coping with Change (i) Coketowns: Dirt, Disease, Death, Deprivation (Tuesday, October 10th 2023)
Was Charles Dickens’ fictional industrial town Coketown true of living conditions in the early-1800s in Europe? What problems were industrial settlements experiencing regardless of their location (including ones in the US)? How were these towns contributing (or not) to national economic development? How did the rich and how did the poor live? What impact did people like Friedrich Engels, a first-hand observer of modern urbanisation, have? How did Britain control its environmental problems, and how did this affect its colonies?
Week 7. Coping with Change (ii) London and Paris in the mid-19th Century (Tuesday, October 17th 2023)
What were the principle difference between the growth of Paris and London in the 19th century? How do you explain these differences? Who were the main actors in the transformations that took place? Was Paris designed to be a work of art or did the urban renewal agenda incorporate other factors? Did Paris’ development affect London, and if so how and why?
Week 8. The City Beautiful: The North American City (Tuesday, October 24th 2023)
How did the rapid urbanisation of the US from the late-1800s affect American thinking about the city? What is the relationship between architects and the American City by about 1900? What was the nature of the City Beautiful Movement? What impact did it have? Why did the City Beautiful, a strictly American concept, spread to places like Manila, Guangzhou and Nanjing? How did the City Beautiful cross cultural borders? Why did the City Beautiful Movement die?
Week 9. Architects and Utopia: New Directions to National Development (Tuesday, October 31st 2023)
What was the distinctive contribution of Raymond Unwin, Tony Garnier, and Le Corbusier to urban development in the 20th century? What were the similarities between the approaches the adopted? What were the differences? How effective do you think each was in establishing a new model of urban development? How optimistic were they? Why did idealistic European ideas have an influence in places like India by the 1950s? Do these ideas have any historical comparisons with ideal cities from the Renaissance?
Week 10. Colonial and Post-Colonial Urban Statements: New Delhi and Canberra (Tuesday, November 7th 2023)
How did the design and plan of environments such as New Delhi and Canberra express sentiments relating to colonialism? What forms did these environments have, and how did they use historicism to establish modern city environments? In the case of Canberra, how did politics affect the design of the city? Is Canberra today the product of urban planning or government attitudes? In what ways was the competition to design Canberra an international scandal, and how did this influence the selection of prize winners? Additionally, did the Indian wish to free itself from colonialism lead to new city types or a re-use of British ideas?
Week 11. City Faces (i). Identities and Nationalism: Antoni Gaudi and Barcelona (Tuesday, Tuesday, November 14th 2023)
How and why did Barcelona develop in the way it did from the mid-1800s? What factors affected its development from the second half of the nineteenth century to the early-1900s? What role did Antoni Gaudi play in this process? And how did his identity as a Catalan affect his architectural work? How is Gaudi’s work now perceived given his image at the centre of Barcelona’s tourist industry, the local cultural renaissance, and the fall of Franco?
Week 12. City Faces (ii). Skyscrapers and their Meanings (Tuesday, Tuesday, November 21st 2023)
What were the origins of high-rise construction? Where were the earliest examples of high-rise offices and housing to be found, and what form did they take? Why did high-rise housing come to be seen as an important means of dealing with housing provision after the Second World War? What led to its eventual abandonment in Britain but its continued use in other countries? What is the significance of high-rise construction today in Asia? Why are the largest buildings in the world found in countries like Taiwan, Malaysia and the UAE? What symbolic messages/readings lie within tall buildings and why do they have great meaning to particular societies as they evolve?
To supplement the lecture documentary work Prof. Morley has undertaken with The Discovery Channel and Voom! will be utilised.
Week 13. City Faces (ii). Skyscrapers and their Meanings (Tuesday, Tuesday, November 28th 2023)
In summing up the course attention will be put upon the capital city of the Philippines, Manila. The class will discuss its urban form and meaning during different past times, and discuss how it has shaped debate in the city about built heritage.
Students shall be given a term grade based on:
1. Participation – 30% of total term score. This grade is given in relation to
2. Short paper (1500-2000 words) – 30% of term grade.
3. Take-home examination (2000-2500 words) – 40% of term grade.
However always remember: speak with Prof. Morley should you have any questions about how your term grade is composed, or how your work shall be graded. He is happy to assist you!
Please note: (i) All assignments submitted will be returned in PDF format via email. All work to be returned includes the assignments plus a grade sheet designed by Prof. Morley that breaks down the score of your work. This informs you of not only your grade but exactly how you achieved it. Detailed comments about your work will be given by your Tutor.
(ii) Amended versions of any assignment cannot be submitted at a later date.
The tutorials, 4 in total – each 45 minutes in length, grant students the chance to discuss the topics introduced in the lectures, and opportunities to help sort out any problems in understanding that the students may have.
To prepare for the tutorials materials are placed onto Blackboard but during the term students might be asked to take responsibility for a small part of a tutorial. The purpose of this exercise is that it will give everyone the chance to grasp part of the course in greater depth, and so will help everyone better prepare for the written assignments. To provoke discourse outside the classroom, and so to ensure student involvement, active learning and where possible deeper learning and thinking, students will be asked to create their own threads within the course’s Facebook group on themes associated with each week’s lecture.
At the start of each tutorial a detailed answer sheet designed by Prof. Morley will be distributed. This will act as a reference point for the class discussions, and shall expand upon many themes raised initially in the lectures. It will also help with work for the assignments.
Tutorial Dates and Themes
As part of your undertaking of HIST5592 you are required to attend four tutorials. These shall take place immediately after the lecture. Each tutorial offers an opportunity to discuss, evaluate and note aspects of the urban past raised within the lectures so as to clarify and elucidate your knowledge of cities and their development. Where possible particular skill-building activities will be introduced. Provisionally, the following dates and topics are set for the tutorials:
CUHK regulations permitting, in November a visit to the Sky 100 will be undertaken.
Core Texts and Journals
The key texts for course HIST5592 are:
Lewis Mumford, The City in History UL HT111.M8/ARL HT111.M8
Shane Ewan, What is Urban History? UL HT113.E94 2016
John Reader, Cities UL HT111. R43 2004
However other texts of relevance to parts of the course are:
Edmund Bacon, The Design of Cities NA9050.B22 1974
Peter Hall, Cities in Civilisation HT 111. H345 1998
Paul Hohenberg and Lynn Hollen Lees, The Making of Urban Europe 1000-1994 UL HT131.H658 1995
Spiro Kostof, The City Shaped and The City Assembled HT111.K63
A.E.J. Morris, History of Urban Form ARL HT166.M59 1993
Donald Olsen, The City as a Work of Art NA970.O47 1986
Jan de Vries, European Urbanization 1500-1800 UL HT131.D4
For primary sources relating to aspects of the course tied to modern cities (between about 1700 and 1900), please refer to http://www.library.cornell.edu/Reps/DOCS/homepage.htm.
Students will be expected to make use of other materials listed within this document as the course unfolds to prepare for both classes and assignments. At the same time many journals will be of use to this preparation process. In particular publications such as Urban History, Social History, Town Planning Review, Planning Perspectives, Journal of Urban History, The Economic History Review, Journal of Urban History, and the Journal of Social Medicine will have relevance to particular lectures and assignment questions.