課程講師 Ian MORLEY ((852) 3943 7116 / firstname.lastname@example.org)
助教 方慧雯 (email@example.com)
Course HIST4380 grants a survey of the origins and transformations of industrial society over the last two centuries or so, a period of time within which industrial nation states have reached new heights of power and acquired the dominant share of the world’s wealth: a wealth once dominated by Westerners but increasingly challenged in recent years by the rise of Asian nations. This comparative studies programme shall allow learners to obtain a critical understanding of the nature of industrial society from multiple perspectives through fostering a multidisciplinary approach to industrialization and many of the changes in society it helped to establish. The course will give students the opportunity to critically consider the ideas and the conditions in Europe and elsewhere that produced industrial change, capitalism and political reform/democracy – processes that the West considered then, and still considers today, as desirable for itself and other parts of the world. The curriculum gives particular focus to pre-industrial Europe and its economy, 1800s Britain, urbanisation and its effects upon social classes, public health, housing and ways of living, i.e. themes considered critical to successful governance today. The course is designed to build transferable skills such as thinking critically, well-constructed writing and the clear presenting of oral arguments. In so doing students will be expected to engage with a range of academic disciplines such as History (social and economic, cultural and urban), Social Studies, Economics and Geography, so as to answer questions such as:
At the end of the course students should be able to achieve the following objectives:
1. Introduction Lecture
An overview of industrial development and its images from the late-1700s onwards.
2. Agriculture and Proto-Industrialisation
Are changes in society necessary prior to the arrival of industrialisation and the shift from agrarian to industrial society? If so, are there any necessary steps beforehand? What was the condition of Europe’s economy prior to the mid-1700s? How important were rural changes to industrial development?
3. Defining the Industrial Revolution
What is meant by the terms ‘Industrial Revolution’ and ‘industrialisation’. In what ways was industrial growth and change revolutionary? What were the social impacts of industrial development? What were work and living conditions like in the early days of the Industrial Revolution?
4. Industrialisation and the European Continent
Why did the Industrial Revolution first occur in Britain? Why did, for example, France industrialise later? How and when did Eastern Europe industrialise? Were there any different pre-requisites in Mainland Europe in order for industrialisation to occur?
5. Society and Governance
How did governments, both local and national, deal with changes in urban society? How did industrialisation affect politics? What institutional changes are needed to adequately govern an industrialising/industrial society?
6. Technology: (i) Transportation
How important is technology to the development of industrialisation, and also its expressions? What inventions were crucial to the industrial progress of (at first) Britain but also other nations? What impacts did inventions, such as the train, have upon urban living?
7. Technology: (ii) Skyscrapers and their Symbolism
Why have cities taken on huge vertical scales? What role has technological developments had in allowing cities to grow high? Which city is the home of the skyscraper? What do tall buildings represent about the state of societies (in Asia)? Why is the home of the skyscraper now SE Asia? What political, economic and cultural messages are these buildings sending?
8. Industrialization and Cities
What are the universal impacts industrial growth has upon urban places? In what ways can these influences overcome time, geography and cultural matters? What effects become apparent when rapid urban growth is established as a consequence of economic progress?
9. Public Health and National Prosperity: (i) Physical Well-being
With reference to the 19th century British industrial cities attention shall be given to the association between health and wealth, and how in some instances due to integrated social policies causes of burdens for the poor can become cures. Attention shall also be given to the impact of diseases such as Cholera, Covid-19, etc.
10. Public Health and National Prosperity: (ii) Mental Well-being
This class provides an opportunity to openly discuss many of the broader issues associated with health, well-being, and economic progress. With reference to the Kingdom of Bhutan and Thailand the class shall discuss why some Asian countries have started to put people’s psychological health before economic advancement. The class will also examine the history of the concept of mental well-being, and its erosion after industrialization took off in Europe. Particular attention will be given to the practice of Gross National Happiness in Bhutan.
11. Industrialization, Social Class, and Social Structures
What new social dynamics are created in industrial change? Can these dynamics reflect themselves in political forms, or social class consciousness and organisation? What social class conflict events in history are reflections of the tensions brought about by industrial change and, for example, greater democratic rights?
12. Jumping Forward: Asian and Chinese Industrial Development
What changes have occurred in Asian societies since 1950? What is the extent of these changes? Have the changes been good or bad? Are the changes affecting everyone in the same way? Have under-classes been created and how is modern life for these people? How are governments in Asia dealing with slum housing and social marginalisation? Are the lessons from history in other parts of the world being utilised in Asia today? When did China industrialise? What role has Chinese politics played in determining industrial change? What success have Chinese governments had in controlling the impacts of industrialisation?
13. Evaluating Industrialisation: Past-Present Links
The final class will grant opportunity to evaluate the causes and impact of industrialization, in so doing occasion is given to compare and contrast how and why industrial change occurs and the effects it has upon people and the natural environment.
Grading and Assessment
The tutorials (4 in total) give students the chance to discuss in some detail the topics introduced in the lectures, and to help them sort out any problems in understanding that they may have. Time is also set aside to consider how industrialization has corresponded with changes in the broader world. Group activities shall be integrated into tutorial classes so that students can ‘do History’ but for tutorials to run effectively all students will be expected to have prepared beforehand, e.g. by reading and by thinking about the class topic in question. Materials to read shall be given by your lecturer each week and by consulting this course book. You also need to be prepared to join in the discussions within the tutorials: active learning is a basic of HIST4380. But do not be afraid to ask questions if you are in doubt: by asking a question you may help others get a better grasp of the topic as well as well as helping yourself!
Materials to be used in this course include:
Aldcroft D.H., and Ville S.P. (eds.), The European Economy, 1750-1914: A Thematic Approach (1994) UL HC240.A6657
Ashworth W., A Short History of the International Economy since 1850 (1975) UL HC53.A8 1987
Braudel, F., Civilisations and Capitalism (1981, 1982 and 1984) UL HC51.B67413 1982
Brown, I., Economic Change in South-East Asia 1830-1980 (1997) UL HC441 .B75 1997
Cambridge Economic History of Europe (1966) UL HC240.C312 1966
Mathias P., and Davis J.A. (ed.), The First Industrial Revolutions (1989) UL HC240.F46
Deane P., The First Industrial Revolution (1979) UL HC254.5.D3 1979
Harrison J.F.C., The Birth and Growth of Industrial England 1714-1867 (1973) UL DA480.H28
Malthus T., An Essay on the Principal of Population (1998) UL HB851.M3
Mathias P., The First Industrial Nation (2001) UL HC253.M36
Smith A., Wealth of Nations (1994) UL HB161 .S6522 1970
Stearns, P.N., The Industrial Revolution in World History UL HD2321.S74 1998
Teich M., and Porter R. (eds.), Industrial Revolution in National Context. Europe and the USA (1996) UL HC53 .I53 1996
Vente, R.L. and Peter S.J. Chen, Culture and Industrialisation: An Asian Dilemma (1980) UL HC412.C84
e-Learning and Facebook Group
To supplement HIST4380 learning materials shall be available online through the CUHK Blackboard system. To use these materials registered students input their CUHK student number and password so as to access, and if they so wish, download materials relevant to the lectures each week. Materials accessible include key contextual texts, lecture PowerPoints used by Prof. Morley, podcasts, videos, etc. The use of Blackboard ensures that if for any reason a student is unable to attend a class that individual can still access all materials given out in the lecture, and not fall behind in the course, but also is designed to offer a structured learning environment outside of the classroom so that students can continue to develop knowledge and skills. Furthermore, texts pertinent to assignment questions can be uploaded by Prof. Morley if there are problems obtaining books or papers from the CUHK library.
Additionally, registered students shall have access to a locked Facebook group through which matters of relevance to the classes can be discussed. Students are welcome to share weblinks or upload photos at this site that are relevant to the overall theme of the course.
To demonstrate an understanding of contextual matters related to the impacts of industrial growth each week students will be asked to upload newspaper stories, website articles, papers, etc. of personal interest, and to place them into an organised folder (portfolio) within the Blackboard system. The material collected shall form the basis of sources to be used for the take-home exam. The purpose of the e-Portfolio is to encourage learning outside of the classroom based on wider reading, and to develop basic transferable skills of pertinence to studying at CUHK and, ideally, the workplace after graduation.
Academic Honesty and Plagiarism
The Chinese University of Hong Kong puts great emphasis on academic honesty and consequently all students are advised to refer to the following website with regards to university regulations about cheating and plagiarism (copying):
Please note: Under no circumstances shall cheating or plagiarism be tolerated. Academic dishonesty can lead to disciplinary action that may result in a stopping of your studies in the History Department. Therefore, you are strongly encouraged to make yourself familiar with the CUHK academic honesty website, and the dangers of copying other’s work.