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HIST4380 The Industrial Revolution & its Impacts

Semester 1 (2019-2020)

Lecture TimeMonday 4:30pm-6:15pm

VenueLSK 304


Lecturer Ian MORLEY (

Teaching Assistant LIU Yichen (

Course Description

Course Description

Course HIST4380, an elective course for both major and non-major students, grants a survey of the origins and transformations of industrial society over the last two centuries or so, a period of time within which industrial nation states have reached new heights of power and acquired the dominant share of the world’s wealth: a wealth once dominated by Westerners but increasingly challenged in recent years by the rise of, for example, Southeast Asian nations. This comparative studies programme shall allow students to obtain a critical understanding of the nature of industrial society from multiple perspectives through fostering a multidisciplinary approach to industrialization and many of the changes in society it helped to establish. The course will give students the opportunity to critically consider the ideas and the conditions in Europe and elsewhere that produced industrial change, capitalism and political reform/democracy – processes that the West considered then and still considers today as desirable for itself and other parts of the world. The curriculum, with its active learning approach, gives particular focus to pre-industrial Europe and its economy, 1800s Britain, urbanisation and its effects upon social classes, public health, housing and ways of living, i.e. themes considered critical to successful governance today. The course is designed to build transferable skills such as thinking critically, well-constructed writing and the clear presenting of oral arguments both in individual and group learning scenarios. In so doing students will be expected to engage with a range of academic disciplines such as History (social and economic, cultural and urban), Social Studies, Economics and Geography, so as to answer questions such as:

  • In what ways did industrialization fundamentally change societies?
  • What factors accounted for the beginning of the Industrial Revolution?
  • How did patterns of urbanization change as a consequence of industrial growth?
  • How did social class and political relations shift due to industrial progress?
  • How did industrial changes affect the role of women or children in the work place?
  • Were the First and Second Industrial Revolutions the same, or were they different?
  • How did rural developments affect the rise of industry, e.g. in Europe’s past?
  • What dangers arise from rapid industrial and urban transition? Are these dangers universal? Do they exist in our world?
  • How can understanding industrial development in the past give deeper comprehension of the contemporary world?


Course Aims

At the end of the course students should be able to achieve the following objectives:

  • Recognize and explain key events that led to upheavals within the economies and societies of Europe, North America and Southeast Asia, in so doing enhancing existing knowledge of what shaped these continents and so made them what they are today;
  • Grasp the relationship between the evolution of industrialization and the changing nature of societies;
  • Consider broad issues within History in greater depth so as to make connections between industrial growth and different contexts;
  • Demonstrate historical knowledge development via online exercises and class-centred exercises;
  • Exhibit critical thinking and research skills through the writing of a scholarly essay and the compiling of an online portfolio.




An Overview of the Course Structure

The teaching for course HIST4380 consists of two complementary learning situations, these being:

  1. Weekly lectures to be given by Prof. Ian Morley. All lectures will be given via the use of Powerpoint, and where possible through the use of DVDs, videos and other electronic media. Audio-video copies of the lectures can be found on Blackboard.
  2. Tutorials. In total four tutorials (approximately 45 minutes each in length) shall be given throughout the course of the term and these present valuable opportunities to not only clarify your knowledge collected in the lectures but to furthermore engage you in discussion of issues associated with the industrial past and its effects: effects being both in the past and present-day worlds.

Overall, the programme shall consist of two corresponding parts. The first, at the start of the term, covers the nature of the Industrial Revolution, the second towards the end of the term focuses more on the impacts upon society of industrial growth and change and gives references to developments in Asia as well as Europe and North America.


The Course

1. Introduction Lecture (Monday, September 2nd 2019)

An overview of industrial development and its images from the late-1700s onwards.

References:     E.A. Wrigley and R.S. Schofield, The Population History of England, 1541-1871  UL HB3585.W74

C. Dickens, Hard Times  CC PR4561.A1 1988

E. Hobsbawm, Industry and Empire from 1750 to the Present Day  UL HC253.H57 1969

E. Baines, History of the Cotton Manufacture in Great Britain  UL  TS1565.G7B2 1966

Jan de Vries, Economy of Europe in an Age of Crisis  UL  HC240.D48 1976

Douglass North & R.P. Thomas, The Rise of the Western World  UL HC240.N66


2. Agriculture and Proto-Industrialisation (Monday, September 9th 2019)

Are changes in society necessary prior to the arrival of industrialisation and the shift from agrarian to industrial society? If so, are there any necessary steps beforehand? What was the condition of Europe’s economy prior to the mid-1700s? How important were rural changes to industrial development?

References:     R. Houston and K.D.W. Snell, ‘Proto-industrialisation? Cottage Industry, Social Change, and Industrial Revolution’, The Historical Journal, 27 (1984), pp. 479-488

S.C. Ogilvia and M. Cerman, European Proto-Industrialization  UL  HD2329 .E95 1996

L.A. Clarkson, Proto-Industrialization: The First Phase of Industrialization  UL  HC240.C52

K. Morgan, The Birth of Industrial Britain  UL  HC254.5 .M635 1999

Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations, Agriculture and Industrialization  UL  HD9000.1.F565 no.17


3. Defining the Industrial Revolution (Monday, September 16th 2019)

What is meant by the terms ‘Industrial Revolution’ and ‘industrialisation’. In what ways was industrial growth and change revolutionary? What were the social impacts of industrial development? What were work and living conditions like in the early days of the Industrial Revolution?

References:     L.R. Berlanstein, The Industrial Revolution and Work in Nineteenth Century Europe  UL  HC240.I533

Pat Hudson, The Industrial Revolution and Regions & Industries  UL  HC254.5.H77 and UL  HC253.R46

P.K. O’Brien and R. Quinault, The Industrial Revolution and British Society  UL HC254.5.I383

E.P. Thompson, ‘Time, Work-Discipline and Industrial Capitalism’ in Past and Present (vol. 38) 

E.P. Thompson, The Making of the English Working Class   UL  HD8388.T47 1968 

John Rule, The Labouring Classes in Early Industrial England  UL  HD8389.R84 

A. Clayre, Nature and Industrialization  CC  PR1111.I58N3

P. Temin, ‘Two Views of the British Industrial Revolution’, Journal of Economic History (March 1997), pp. 63-82. 


 4. Industrialisation and the European Continent (Monday, September 23rd 2019)

Why did the Industrial Revolution first occur in Britain? Why did, for example, France industrialise later? How and when did Eastern Europe industrialise? Were there any different pre-requisites in Mainland Europe in order for industrialisation to occur?

References:     K. Bruland, Technological Revolutions in Europe  UL T173.8 .T415 1998

S. Pollard & C. Holmes, Documents of European Economic History  UL  HC240.P595

W.O. Henderson, The Industrialization of Europe, 1780-1914 and Britain & Industrial Europe  UL  HC240.H475 and UL  HC240.H46 1965

R.F. Leslie, The Age of Transformation  UL  D299.L4

C.A. Leeds, European History, 1789-1914  UL  D359.L44 1979

S. Pollard, Peaceful Conquest  UL  HC240.P5956

W.L. Blackwell, The Industrialization of Russia: A Historical Perspective  UL  HC333.B54 1994


5. Society and Governance (Monday, September 30th 2019) 

How did governments, both local and national, deal with changes in urban society? How did industrialisation affect politics? What institutional changes are needed to adequately govern an industrialising/industrial society?

References:     F. Engels, The Condition of the Working Class in England  UL  and CC Res HD8389.E5

S. Pollard, The Genesis of Modern Management  UL and CC Res HC255.P64

E.J. Hobsbawn, The Age of Revolution  UL  D299 .H6 1962b 

N.F.R. Crafts, British Economic Growth during the Industrial Revolution  UL  HC254.5.C72

Asa Briggs, Victorian Cities  CC Res HT133.B7 1968

P. Stansky, The Victorian Revolution: Government and Society  UL  JN216.S7

D. Fraser, Urban Politics in Victorian Britain and Municipal Reform and the Industrial City  UL  JS3068.F7

D. Cannadine, Patricians, Power & Politics  UC ASL  HT653.G7 P3 1982

E.P. Hennock, ‘Central/Local Government Relations in England: An Outline, 1800-1950’, Urban History Yearbook, 1982, pp. 38-49

J.H. Johnson & C.G. Pooley, The Structure of Nineteenth Century Cities  UL  HT133.S85 1982

L.D. Schwarz, London in the Age of Industrialisation  CC Res HB2676.L66S38 1992

T. Barker, ‘Business as Usual: London and the Industrial Revolution’, History Today, 39 (1989), pp. 45-51.

J. Wirth & R.L. Jones, Manchester and Sao Paulo  UL  HT371.M28


6. PUBLIC HOLIDAY! NO CLASS! (Monday, October 7 2019)


7. Technology: (i) Transportation (Monday, October 14th 2019)

How important is technology to the development of industrialisation, and also its expressions? What inventions were crucial to the industrial progress of (at first) Britain but also other nations? What impacts did inventions, such as the train, have upon urban living?

References:     T.P. Hughes, The Development of Western Technology Since 1500  UL  T18.H8

K. Bruland, Technological Revolutions in Europe  UL  T173.8 .T415 1998 

M. Berg, Maxine, The Age of Manufactures  UL  HD9720.5.B47 1994

J. Mokyr, Twenty Five Centuries of Technological Change  UL  HC79.T4M65 1990

R. Fogel, Railroads and American Economic Growth  UL  HE2751.F65

C. Cockburn, Bringing Technology Home  UL  HQ1075.5.E85B75 1994

J.R. Kellett, Railways in Victorian Cities  CC Res HE3018.K44 1979

D. Cannadine & D. Reeder, Exploring the Urban Past  UL  Res HT133.D88 1982

G. Gordon & B. Dicks, Scottish Urban History  ARL  HT133.S39

H.J. Dyos, Railways and housing in Victorian London, Journal of Transport History 2 (1955), pp. 11-21 & pp. 90-100

G.C. Dickinson, The development of suburban road passenger transport in Leeds, 1840-95, Journal of Transport History 4 (1959-60), pp. 214-23


 8A. Technology: (ii) Skyscrapers and their Symbolism (Monday, October 21st 2019) 

Why have cities taken on huge vertical scales? What role has technological developments had in allowing cities to grow high? Which city is the home of the skyscraper? What do tall buildings represent about the state of societies (in Asia)? Why is the home of the skyscraper now SE Asia? What political, economic and cultural messages are these buildings sending?

References:     J. Meejin Yoon and Eric Höweler, 1001 Skyscrapers  ARL  NA6230 .Y66 2000

L.R. Ford, Cities and Buildings: Skyscrapers, Skid Rows and Suburbs

ARL  NA705.F67 1994

J. Jervis, Exploring the Modern UL  CB245 .J47 1998

W.J. Mitchell, Placing Words  ARL  NA2584 .M58 2005

C. Abel, Sky High  ARL  NA6230 .A23 2003

B. Sonder, Skyscrapers  ARL  NA6230 .S63 1999

G. Binder, Tall Buildings of Asia and Australia  ARL  NA6234.A78 T35 2001

Huang Tsung-yi Michelle, Walking Between Slums and Skyscrapers

UL  and UL HK Studies HT169.H6 H83 2004


8B. Fieldtrip: Sky100, Hong Kong (Friday, 25th October 2019)

All materials for this visit shall be provided by your Tutor. The date of the fieldtrip is to be confirmed after discussion with the students. 


9. Industrialization and Cities (Monday, October 28th 2019)

What are the universal impacts industrial growth has upon urban places? In what ways can these influences overcome time, geography and cultural matters? What effects become apparent when rapid urban growth is established as a consequence of economic progress?

References:     Jan de Vries, Urbanization in History  ARL  HT361.U726 1990

J.G. Williamson, Coping with City Growth During the British Industrial Revolution  ARL  HT384.G7 W54 2002

T.K. Rabb & RI Rotberg, Industrialization and Urbanization  UL  HT111.I52

M. Doughty, Building the Industrial City  ARL  HD7289.5.A3G724 1986

R. Dennis, English Industrial Cities of the 19th Century: A Social Geography  UL  HT133.D4

H.J. Dyos & M. Wolff, The Victorian City: Images and Realities  UL  HT133.D89 1976

M.J. Daunton, Housing the Workers  UL  and CC Res HD7287.95.H68

H. Conway, People’s Parks  CC Res SB484.G7C59 1991

F.M.L. Thompson, The Rise of Suburbia  CC Res HT133.R57 1982

D. Cannadine & D. Reeder, Exploring the Urban Past: Essays in Urban History  UL  Res HT133.D88 1982

Roy Porter, London: A Social History  CC Res DA677.P67 1995

G. Weightman & S Humphries, The Making of Modern London,2340,en_2649_201185_37766436_1_1_1_1,00.html


10. NO CLASS! PROF. MORLEY AT CONFERENCE! (Monday, 4th November 2019)


11. Public Health and National Prosperity: (i) Physical Well-being (Monday, 11th November 2019)

With reference to the 19th century British industrial cities attention shall be given to the association between health and wealth, and how in some instances due to integrated social policies causes of burdens for the poor can become cures. Attention shall also be given to the impact of diseases such as Cholera, SARS, HIV/AIDS, Avian Influenza, etc., in Asia.

References:     D. Englander, Poverty and Poor Law Reform  UL  HV245 .E54 1998

A.S. Wohl, The Eternal Slum  CC Res  HD7334.L7W6

W. Ashworth, The Genesis of Modern British Town Planning  CC Res  NA9185.A795

A. Kidd, State, Society and the Poor  UL  HV249.E89 K53 1999

H. Mayhew, London Labour  UL  HV4088.L8 M52 1968

Anne Hardy, Epidemic Streets  MD  WC11.FE5H37 1993

B. Luckin & G. Mooney, ‘Urban History and Historical Epidemiology: The Case of London, 1860-1920’, Urban History 24 (May, 1997), pp. 37-55.

Roy Porter, Disease, Medicine and Society  UL  WA31.P67


Primary source:


12. Public Health and National Prosperity: (ii) Mental Well-being (Monday, 18th November 2019)

This class provides an opportunity to openly discuss many of the broader issues associated with health, well-being, and economic progress. With reference to the Kingdom of Bhutan and Thailand the class shall discuss why some Asian countries have started to put people’s psychological health before economic advancement.  The class will also examine the history of the concept of mental well-being, and its erosion after industrialization took off in Europe. Particular attention will be given to the practice of Gross National Happiness in Bhutan.

Reference:      I. Morley, ‘The Trauma of Modernity and its Well-Being of Disparity’, paper presented in the International Conference on Happiness and Public Policy at the United Nations in Bangkok, Thailand.



13A. Industrialization, Social Class, and Social Structures (Monday, 25th November 2019)

What new social dynamics are created in industrial change? Can these dynamics reflect themselves in political forms, or social class consciousness and organisation? What social class conflict events in history are reflections of the tensions brought about by industrial change and, for example, greater democratic rights?

References:     M. Berg, ‘What Difference did Women’s Work Make to the Industrial Revolution?’, History Workshop 35 (Spring 1993)

Jan de Vries, ‘The Industrious Revolution and the Industrial Revolution, Journal of Economic History (June 1994), pp. 249-270.

R. Floud and M. McCloskey, The Economic History of Britain Since 1700  UL  HC254.5.E27

L.R. Berlanstein, The Industrial Revolution and Work in Nineteenth Century Europe  UL  HC240.I533

Anna Clark, The Struggle for the Breeches  UL  HD8390 .C48 1995

John Foster, Class Struggle and the Industrial Revolution  UL  HD8390 .F58 1974

J.L. Hammond, The Town Labourer  UL  HD8389.H3

T.K. Rabb & R.I. Rotberg, Industrialization and Urbanization  UL  HT111.I52

R.J. Morris, Class and Class Consciousness in the Industrial Revolution  UL  HN382.M67

G. Kearns & C.W.J. Withers, Urbanising Britain  UL  HT384.G7U73

R. Dennis & S. Daniels, ‘Community and the Social Geography of Victorian Cities’, Urban History Yearbook (1981), pp. 7-23

R.J. Morris, Class, Sect and Party  UL  HT690.G7M67


13B. Jumping Forward: Asian and Chinese Industrial Development (e-Lecture)

What changes have occurred in Asian societies since 1950? What is the extent of these changes? Have the changes been good or bad? Are the changes affecting everyone in the same way? Have under-classes been created and how is modern life for these people? How are governments in Asia dealing with slum housing and social marginalisation? Are the lessons from history in other parts of the world being utilised in Asia today? When did China industrialise? What role has Chinese politics played in determining industrial change? What success have Chinese governments had in controlling the impacts of industrialisation?

Please note, this e-lecture is available on Blackboard to registered students.

Assessment & Assignments
  • Documentary review (1500-2000 words). This assignment centres upon critically appraising a documentary, and comprises 25% of the overall term grade.
  • Academic essay (25% of term grade – 1500-2000 words), a body of work that demonstrates analysis and learnt knowledge of a selected subject.
  • Take-home exam (15%), a summary exercise (1,000 words in length) that utilizes materials students have collected in their online portfolio, in so doing encouraging learners to reveal their own thoughts and conclusions about the industrial revolution and its impacts The take-home exam, in particular, focuses on students applying classroom/book knowledge to real world themes/issues.
  • Participation grade (35%). This grade is given in relation to classroom and e-learning activities:

(i)    Attendance of lectures and tutorials, and engagement with classmates in group learning activities (25 points);

(ii)  The compiling of an e-portfolio (10 points), an online work platform designed to allow students to follow-up on course-related subjects of their own personal interest and choice. The e-portfolio gives chance to further develop critical thinking and knowledge development, i.e. matters transferable to other courses at CUHK, and for the promotion of lifelong learning on topics selected by/of interest to the students;



The tutorials (4 in total) give students the chance to discuss in some detail the topics introduced in the lectures, and to help them sort out any problems in understanding that they may have. Time is also set aside to consider how industrialization has corresponded with changes in the broader world. Group activities shall be integrated into tutorial classes so that students can ‘do History’ but for tutorials to run effectively all students will be expected to have prepared beforehand, e.g. by reading and by thinking about the class topic in question. Materials to read shall be given by your lecturer each week and by consulting this course book. You also need to be prepared to join in the discussions within the tutorials: active learning is a basic of HIST4380. But do not be afraid to ask questions if you are in doubt: by asking a question you may help others get a better grasp of the topic as well as well as helping yourself!



It is expected that students registering for HIST4380 shall take part in a fieldtrip. Presently a day visit to Sky100 Hong Kong Observation Deck is planned. The visit shall grant students a first hand, active learning opportunity to see various industrial and urban processes, and their impacts, in a real world setting. 



Materials to be used in this course include:

Aldcroft D.H., and Ville S.P. (eds.), The European Economy, 1750-1914: A Thematic Approach (1994)   UL  HC240.A6657

Ashworth W., A Short History of the International Economy since 1850 (1975)  UL  HC53.A8 1987

Braudel, F., Civilisations and Capitalism (1981, 1982 and 1984)  UL  HC51.B67413 1982

Brown, I., Economic Change in South-East Asia 1830-1980 (1997)   UL  HC441 .B75 1997

Cambridge Economic History of Europe (1966)   UL  HC240.C312 1966

Mathias P., and Davis J.A. (ed.), The First Industrial Revolutions (1989)  UL HC240.F46

Deane P., The First Industrial Revolution (1979)  UL  HC254.5.D3 1979

Harrison J.F.C., The Birth and Growth of Industrial England 1714-1867 (1973)  UL  DA480.H28

Malthus T., An Essay on the Principal of Population (1998)  UL  HB851.M3

Mathias P., The First Industrial Nation (2001)  UL  HC253.M36

Smith A., Wealth of Nations (1994)  UL  HB161 .S6522 1970

Stearns, P.N., The Industrial Revolution in World History  UL  HD2321.S74 1998

Teich M., and Porter R. (eds.), Industrial Revolution in National Context. Europe and the USA (1996)  UL  HC53 .I53 1996

Vente, R.L. and Peter S.J. Chen, Culture and Industrialisation: An Asian Dilemma (1980)  UL  HC412.C84


Many articles from journals such as Economic History Review, American Economic Review, Journal of Economic History, International Review of Social History, Journal of British Studies, History Workshop, Past and Present, Journal of European History, shall also be utilised. Furthermore reputable online sites and online files will be used as resource materials, including:


Lectures and Student Responsibilities

Students are required to attend all class functions and to arrive prepared for lectures. This includes arriving on time, having paper on which to record notes, listening attentively to the Lecturer and, where possible, joining in any Lecturer-led discussions. For more information please look at the section ‘Ground Rules’.


e-Learning and Facebook Group

To supplement HIST4380 learning materials shall be available online through the CUHK Blackboard system. To use these materials registered students input their CUHK student number and password so as to access, and if they so wish, download materials relevant to the lectures each week. Materials accessible include key contextual texts, lecture PowerPoints used by Prof. Morley, podcasts, videos, etc. The use of Blackboard ensures that if for any reason a student is unable to attend a class that individual can still access all materials given out in the lecture, and not fall behind in the course, but also is designed to offer a structured learning environment outside of the classroom so that students can continue to develop knowledge and skills. Furthermore, texts pertinent to assignment questions can be uploaded by Prof. Morley if there are problems obtaining books or papers from the CUHK library.

Additionally, registered students shall have access to a locked Facebook group through which matters of relevance to the classes can be discussed. Students are welcome to share weblinks or upload photos at this site that are relevant to the overall theme of the course.


Student e-Portfolio

To demonstrate an understanding of contextual matters related to the impacts of industrial growth each week students will be asked to upload newspaper stories, website articles, papers, etc. of personal interest, and to place them into an organised folder (portfolio) within the Blackboard system. The material collected shall form the basis of sources to be used for the take-home exam. The purpose of the e-Portfolio is to encourage learning outside of the classroom based on wider reading, and to develop basic transferable skills of pertinence to studying at CUHK and, ideally, the workplace after graduation.


Ground Rules

In order for all classroom situations to work effectively certain rules need to be established. Regulations relating to the classroom teaching of the programme ‘The Industrial Revolution and its Impacts’ include:

  1. Reasonable behaviour during lectures and tutorials. You will be asked to leave should you act inappropriately.
  2. Paying attention to the Lecturer and Tutor.
  3. Do not talk when the Lecturer/Tutor is teaching. The Lecturer/Tutor will not continue during a disruption.
  4. Having an awareness of CUHK safety regulations within the university environment.
  5. Having an awareness that you are responsible for your own learning.
  6. You should come prepared to lecturers and tutorials.
  7. Arrive on time to any lecturers and tutorials to be given.
  8. Turn mobile phones off once in the classroom. However, if you anticipate an important call please inform your Lecturer/Tutor in advance.
  9. Attend as many lecturers and tutorials as is possible.
  10. Take appropriate noted during lecturers and tutorials.
  11. Read recommended texts and other materials to boost your understanding of the subjects being taught.
  12. Plagiarism shall not be tolerated under any circumstances. Your teachers nor CUHK permit cheating. Copying work is treated very seriously at CUHK.
  13. Participation means more than the mere attendance of lectures and tutorials: you must be prepared to do the required readings and be prepared to contribute to classroom discussions.


Potential Problems

Being a student given present-day demands is sometimes not easy. Juggling a social and family life with the demands of a university course can be troublesome at times. Consequently, some simple behavioural patterns are advisable at this point. By way of example, be thoroughly organised from the start of the term, note down the deadlines of any work to be handed in or dates of any presentations to be given as well as the dates of tutorials you are expected to attend. Moreover, given the demands upon you by work and home problems can occur. If difficulties do arise that will impact upon your studies please contact your Prof. Morley or your Tutor immediately. They will endeavour to help you as much as is possible. Do not hesitate to speak with or to email your Tutor should you need help. Thus if problems do arise please do not wait until telling your teachers. Problems when they initially occur can be managed far more easily than ones that are bigger in nature.

Honesty in Academic Work

Attention is drawn to University policy and regulations on honesty in academic work, and to the disciplinary guidelines and procedures applicable to breaches of such policy and regulations. Details may be found at

With each assignment, students will be required to submit a signed declaration that they are aware of these policies, regulations, guidelines and procedures.

  • In the case of group projects, all members of the group should be asked to sign the declaration, each of whom is responsible and liable to disciplinary actions, irrespective of whether he/she has signed the declaration and whether he/she has contributed, directly or indirectly, to the problematic contents.
  • For assignments in the form of a computer-generated document that is principally text-based and submitted via VeriGuide, the statement, in the form of a receipt, will be issued by the system upon students’ uploading of the soft copy of the assignment.

Assignments without the properly signed declaration will not be graded by teachers.

Only the final version of the assignment should be submitted via VeriGuide.

The submission of a piece of work, or a part of a piece of work, for more than one purpose (e.g. to satisfy the requirements in two different courses) without declaration to this effect shall be regarded as having committed undeclared multiple submissions. It is common and acceptable to reuse a turn of phrase or a sentence or two from one’s own work; but wholesale reuse is problematic. In any case, agreement from the course teacher(s) concerned should be obtained prior to the submission of the piece of work.

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